Alma mater - St.Petersburg University: Dept. High Energy Physics
Dept. Math Physics
Math UW-Colleges (Nice) words of students and colleagues
Alexey A. Kryukov
Papers in analysis, geometry and quantum
 
My Credo:

Have you ever wondered why the universe, the way we picture it today, is so complex
and difficult to understand?
    Well, I believe it should not be.

The history proves that science has periods of evolution "in large" and periods of global syntheses, when a multitude of separate facts becomes suddenly a realization of a few properties of nature. To make science simple we just need to discover these properties.
It may not be easy, but there are facts out there that hint even now as we speak to these properties. We just have to listen carefully and to respond . . .


In 2013-14 I will be on sabbatical leave to continue research in Geometric Quantum Theory.



Functional methods underlying classical mechanics, relativity and quantum theory
Journ. Phys. Accepted in Dec. 2012

The paper investigates the physical content of a recently proposed mathematical framework that unifies the standard formalisms of classical mechanics, relativity and quantum theory. In the framework states of a classical particle are identified with Dirac delta functions. The classical space is "made" of these functions and becomes a submanifold in a Hilbert space of states of the particle. The resulting embedding of the classical space into the space of states is highly non-trivial and accounts for numerous deep relations between classical and quantum physics and relativity. One of the most striking results is the proof that the normal probability distribution of position of a macroscopic particle (equivalently, position of the corresponding delta state within the classical space submanifold) yields the Born rule for transitions between arbitrary quantum states.

In 2009-10 I received a NSF grant as a PI. The following two papers report on the main results.



Geometry of the unification of quantum mechanics and relativity of a single particle
Found. Phys. 41 (2011) 129

The paper summarizes, generalizes and reveals the physical content of a recently proposed framework that unifies the standard formalisms of special relativity and quantum mechanics. The framework is based on Hilbert spaces H of functions of spacetime variables x, t, furnished with an additional indefinite inner product invariant under Poincare transformations. The indefinite metric is responsible for breaking the symmetry between space and time variables and for selecting a family of Hilbert subspaces that are preserved under Galileo transformations. Within these subspaces the usual quantum mechanics with Shroedinger evolution and t as the evolution parameter is derived. Simultaneously, the Minkowski space-time is embedded into H as a set of point-localized states, Poincare transformations obtain unique extensions to H and the embedding commutes with Poincare transformations. Furthermore, the framework accommodates arbitrary pseudo-Riemannian space-times furnished with the action of the diffeomorphism group.

A possible mathematics for the unifcation of quantum mechanics and general relativity
J. Math. Phys. 59, 022110 (2010)

This paper summarizes and generalizes a recently proposed mathematical framework that unifies the standard formalisms of special relativity and quantum mechanics.The framework is based on Hilbert spaces H of functions of four spacetime variables x, t, furnished with an additional indefinite inner product invariant under Poincare transformations, and isomorphisms of these spaces that preserve the indefinite metric. The indefinite metric is responsible for breaking the symmetry between space and time variables and for selecting a family of Hilbert subspaces that are preserved under Galileo transformations. Within these subspaces the usual quantum mechanics with Schroedinger evolution and t as the evolution parameter is derived. Simultaneously, the Minkowski space-time is isometrically embedded into H, Poincare transformations have unique extensions to isomorphisms of H and the embedding commutes with Poincare transformations. The main new result is a proof that the framework accommodates arbitrary pseudo-Riemannian space-times furnished with the action of the diffeomorphism group.

Nine theorems on the unification of quantum mechanics and relativity
J. Math. Phys. 49, 102108 (2008)

A mathematical framework that unifies the standard formalisms of special relativity and quantum mechanics is proposed. For this a Hilbert space H of functions of four variables x,t furnished with an additional indefinite inner product invariant under Poincare transformations is introduced. For a class of functions in H that are well localized in the time variable t the usual formalism of non-relativistic quantum mechanics is derived. In particular, the interference in time for these functions is suppressed; a motion in H becomes the usual Shroedinger evolution with t as a parameter. The relativistic invariance of the construction is proved. The usual theory of relativity on Minkowski space-time is shown to be ``isometrically and equivariantly embedded'' into H. That is, classical space-time is isometrically embedded into H, Poincare transformations have unique extensions to isomorphisms of H and the embedding commutes with Poincare transformations.

On a differential-geometric analogue of Gelfand-Kolmogorov theorem
Written in Dec. 2007, recently expanded.

It is proved that an arbitrary n-dimensional smooth manifold N is diffeomorphic to the submanifold of all evaluation functionals in the space H*, dual to a Hilbert space H of functions on R^n. Furthermore, if N is an analytic Riemannian manifold, the resulting embedding of N into H* can be ensured to be locally isometric. In general terms the results signify that the theory of n-dimensional differentiable manifolds is contained in the theory of Hilbert spaces of functions on R^n.

The double-slit and the EPR experiments: A paradox-free kinematic description
arXiv:0708.3071 (2008)

The paradoxes of the double-slit and the EPR experiments with particles are shown to originate in the implicit assumption that the particles are always located in the classical space. It is demonstrated that there exists a natural substitute for this assumption that provides a method of resolving the paradoxes.

Geometric Derivation of Quantum Uncertainty
Phys. Lett. A 370 (2007) 419

Quantum observables can be identified with vector fields on the sphere of normalized states. Consequently, the uncertainty relations for quantum observables become geometric statements. In the Letter the familiar uncertainty relation follows from the following stronger statement: Of all parallelograms with given sides the rectangle has the largest area.

On the Measurement Problem for a Two-Level Quantum System
Found. Phys. 37 (2007) 3

A geometric approach to quantum mechanics with unitary evolution and non-unitary collapse processes is developed. In this approach the Schroedinger evolution of a quantum system is a geodesic motion on the space of states of the system furnished with an appropriate Riemannian metric. The measuring device is modeled by a perturbation of the metric. The process of measurement is identified with a geodesic motion of state of the system in the perturbed metric. Under the assumption of random fluctuations of the perturbed metric, the Born rule for probabilities of collapse is derived. The approach is applied to a two-level quantum system to obtain a simple geometric interpretation of quantum commutators, the uncertainty principle and Planck's constant. In light of this, a lucid analysis of the double-slit experiment with collapse and an experiment on a pair of entangled particles is presented.

Quantum Mechanics on Hilbert Manifolds: The Principle of Functional Relativity
Found. Phys. 36 (2006) 175

Quantum mechanics is formulated as a geometric theory on a Hilbert manifold. Images of charts on the manifold are allowed to belong to arbitrary Hilbert spaces of functions including spaces of generalized functions. Tensor equations in this setting, also called functional tensor equations, describe families of functional equations on various Hilbert spaces of functions. The principle of functional relativity is introduced which states that quantum theory is indeed a functional tensor theory, i.e., it can be described by functional tensor equations. The main equations of quantum theory are shown to be compatible with the principle of functional relativity. By accepting the principle as a hypothesis, we then explain the origin of physical dimensions, provide a geometric interpretation of Planck's constant, and find a simple model of the two-slit experiment and the process of measurement.

Linear Algebra and Differential Geometry on Abstract Hilbert Space
Int. Journ. Math. & Math. Sci. 14  (2005) 2241

Isomorphisms of separable Hilbert spaces are analogous to isomorphisms of n-dimensional vector spaces. However, while n-dimensional spaces in applications are always realized as the Euclidean space Rn, Hilbert spaces admit various useful realizations as spaces of functions. In the paper this simple observation is used to construct a fruitful formalism of local coordinates on Hilbert manifolds. Images of charts on manifolds in the formalism are allowed to belong to arbitrary Hilbert spaces of functions including spaces of generalized functions. Tensor equations then describe families of functional equations on various spaces of functions. The formalism itself and its applications in linear algebra, differential equations, and differential geometry are carefully analyzed.

On the Problem of Emergence of Classical Space–Time: The Quantum-Mechanical Approach
Found. Phys. 34 (2004) 1225

The Riemannian manifold structure of the classical (i.e., Einsteinian) spacetime is derived from the structure of an abstract infinite-dimensional separable Hilbert space S. For this S is first realized as a Hilbert space H of functions of abstract parameters. The space H is associated with the space of states of a macroscopic test-particle in the universe. The spatial localization of state of the particle through its interaction with the environment is associated with the selection of a submanifold M of realization H. The submanifold M is then identified with the classical space (i.e., a space–like hypersurface in spacetime). The mathematical formalism is developed which allows recovering of the usual Riemannian geometry on the classical space and, more generally, on space and time from the Hilbert structure on S. The specific functional realizations of S are capable of generating space-times of different geometry and topology. Variation of the length-type action functional on S is shown to produce both the equation of geodesics on M for macroscopic particles and the Schrödinger equation for microscopic particles.

Coordinate Formalism on Hilbert Manifolds
Mathematical Physics Research at the Cutting Edge (Nova Science, New York, 2004)

The formalism of local coordinates on infinite-dimensional Hilbert manifolds is introduced. Images of charts on the manifolds are allowed to belong to arbitrary Hilbert spaces of functions including spaces of generalized functions. The corresponding local coordinate form of algebra of tensor fields on Hilbert manifolds is constructed. A single tensor equation in the formalism is shown to produce a family of functional equations on different spaces of functions. This allows for a "covariant" approach to the theory of generalized functions and suggests a way of using generalized functions in solving linear and nonlinear problems. Examples in linear algebra, differential equations, differential geometry and variational calculus are used to illustrate the results.

The Emergence of the Macroworld: A Study of Intertheory Relations in Classical and Quantum Mechanics (with Malcolm Forster)
Philosophy of Science 70 (2003) 1039

Classical mechanics is empirically successful because the probabilistic mean values of quantum mechanical observables follow the classical equations of motion to a good approximation (Messiah 1970, 215). We examine this claim for the one-dimensional motion of a particle in a box, and extend the idea by deriving a special case of the ideal gas law in terms of the mean value of a generalized force used to define "pressure." The examples illustrate the importance of probabilistic averaging as a method of abstracting away from the messy details of microphenomena, not only in physics, but in other sciences as well.

Coordinate Formalism on Abstract Hilbert Space: Kinematics of a Quantum Measurement
Found. Phys. 33 (2003) 407

Coordinate form of tensor algebra on an abstract (infinite-dimensional) Hilbert space is presented. The developed formalism permits one to naturally include the improper states in the apparatus of quantum theory. In the formalism the observables are represented by the self-adjoint extensions of Hermitian operators. The unitary operators become linear isometries. The unitary evolution and the nonunitary collapse processes are interpreted as isometric functional transformations. Several experiments are analyzed in the new context.

Conformal Transformations of Space-Time as Vector Bundle Automorphisms
PhilSci Archive (2001)

Conformal group of Minkowski space-time M is considered as a group of bundle automorphisms of a vector bundle U over M. 4-component spin-vectors (4-spinors) are sections of a subbundle of the tangent bundle over U. Isotropic 4-vectors are images of 4-spinors under projection. This leads to a particularly clear interpretation of the spin properties of Nature.